External Resources



NITI Aayog. Report of the Task Force on Sugarcane and Sugar Industry. March 2020.


Catholic Relief Services. Exploring Isolated Cases of Modern Slavery: Farmworker Protections and Labor Conditions in Brazil’s Coffee Sector. 2016.  


Humanity United. Free and Fair Labor in Palm Oil Production: Principles and Implementation Guidance. 2015.


International Labour Organization. Migrant Workers in Commercial Agriculture. 2016.


International Labour Organization, Verité, Ahifores, European Union. Toolbox to Implement Fair Hiring in the Agricultural Sector. 2020


On the Move Partnership. Who, How and How Much? Recruitment of Guatemalan Migrant Workers to Quebec. 2017.


Verité. Immigrant Workers in U.S. Agriculture: The Role of Labor Brokers in Vulnerability to Forced Labor. 2010.


Verité. Labor Rights Risks in the Guatemalan Sugar Sector. 2017.


Verité. Case Study: African Migrants in the Strawberry Fields and Greenhouses of Spain During the Pandemic. June 23, 2020. 


Verité. A Brief Guide to Ethical Recruitment for the Palm Oil Sector. April 2021.




Human Rights Watch. Qatar: Six Months Post-World Cup, Migrant Workers Suffer. June 2023. 


Human Rights Watch. Guidelines for a Better Construction Industry in the GCC: Code of Conduct for Construction Companies. 2015.


International Labour Organization. Brick by Brick: Unveiling the full picture of South Asia’s brick kiln industry and building the blocks for change. 2017.


International Labour Organization. Guidance Tool for Construction Companies in the Middle East. 2019.


Whobuilds.org. A Critical Field Guide: Who Builds Your Architecture? 2017. 


Manufacturing, Electronics and Electrical:


Verité. Forced Labor in the Production of Electronics Goods in Malaysia. 2014.



Manufacturing, Textile and Apparel:


Asia Foundation. Forced Labor and Child Trafficking in India’s Garment Sector. 2017. 


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Business Conduct: Responsible Supply Chains in the Garment and Footwear Sector. 2017.


Human Rights Watch. "Paying for a Bus Ticket and Expecting to Fly: How Apparel Brand Purchasing Practices Drive Labor Abuses." 2019.



Extractives, Mining, and Metal:


Verité. The Nexus of Illegal Gold Mining and Human Trafficking in Global Supply Chains. 2016.



Fishing and Aquaculture:

Maynooth University. Experiences of Non-EEA Workers in the Irish Fishing Industry. 2021.

Advancing Gender in the Environment: Gender in Fisheries - A Sea of Opportunities. IUCN, USAID. 2019. 

Environmental Justice Foundation. Pirates and Slaves: How Overfishing in Thailand Fuels Human Trafficking

and the Plundering of Our Oceans2015.


Fishwise. Social Responsibility in the Global Seafood Industry. 2018.

All at Sea: An Evaluation of Company Efforts to Address Modern Slavery in Pacific Supply Chains of Canned Tuna. Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, March 2021.

Greenpeace. Turn The Tide: Human Rights Abuses and Illegal Fishing in Thailand’s Overseas Fishing Industry. 2016.


Greenpeace. Choppy Waters: Forced Labour and Illegal Fishing in Taiwan's Distant Water Fisheries. March 2020.


Humanity United. Assessing Government and Business Responses to the Thai Seafood Crisis. 2016.


International Labour Organization. Fishers First; Good Practices to End Labour Exploitation at Sea. 2016.


International Labor Rights Forum. Taking Stock: Labor Exploitation, Illegal Fishing and Brand Responsibility in The Seafood Industry. 2018.


Business and Human Rights Resource Centre. Out of Sight: Modern Slavery in Pacific Supply Chains of Canned Tuna. A Survey & Analysis of Company Action. June 2019. 


Global Dialogue on Seafood Traceability. GDST 1.0 Standards and Materials. March 2020.





Oxfam. Pathways to Deforestation-Free Food: Developing supply chains free of deforestation and exploitation in the food and beverage sector. 2017. 


Verite. Reports on Forestry: Exploring Intersections of Trafficking in Persons, Vulnerability, and Environmental Degradation in Foresty and Adjacnet Sectors: Case Studies in Burma and Mozambique. 2020.





Australian Nursing & Midwifery Federation. Do No Harm? Procurement of Medical Goods by Australian Companies and Government: Exploitation in Medical Goods Supply Chains. 2017.


International Labour Organization. Improving employment and working conditions in health services. 2017. 





International Labour Organization. Migrant workers in the international hotel industry. 2012.


IHRB. Promoting Fair Recruitment and Employment: Guidance Tool for Hotels in Qatar. 2020.


U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Human Trafficking Awareness Guide for Convenience Retail Employees.




Human Rights Watch. Abuse of Tanzanian Domestic Workers in Oman and United Arab Emirates. 2017. 



Transportation and Warehousing:


International Labor Rights Forum. Modern-Day Servitude in U.S. Port Trucking: A Call to Retail Brands. 2018.



Global Supply Chains, Recruitment, Trafficking:


Amnesty Nepal. The Debt Trap: How business and government undermine Nepali migrants’ efforts to escape poverty. 2017.


Christina Stringer. Worker Exploitation in New Zealand: A Troubling Landscape. The Human Trafficking Research Coalition. 2016.


Ethical Trading Initiative. Base Code Guidance: Caste in Global Supply Chains. January 2019.


Institute for Human Rights and Business. Fees and IDs: Tackling Recruitment fees and confiscation of workers’ passports. 2013.


Institute for Human Rights and Business. Corporate Liability for Forced Labour and Human Trafficking. October 2016. 


International Labour Organization. Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage. 2017.


ISEAL Alliance. Corporate due diligence, sustainability standards and certification. Briefing Note. January 2020.


Lisa Rende Taylor and Elena Shih. Worker feedback technologies and combatting modern slavery in global supply chains: examining the effectiveness of remediation-oriented and due-diligence-oriented technologies in identifying and addressing forced labour and human trafficking. Journal of the British Academy. 2019.


Polaris Project. Labor Trafficking in the U.S.: A Closer Look at Temporary Work Visas.


The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. Connecting human trafficking and conflict. 2017.


The Freedom Fund. Slavery Research Library: A Searchable Library of Anti-Slavery Resources.


Verité and Tent. Combating Forced and Child Labor of Refugees in Global Supply Chains: The Role of Responsible Sourcing. 2021.


Verité. Corruption & Labor Trafficking in Global Supply Chains. 2013.


Yale Law School International Human Rights Clinic, ACLU. Victims of Complacency: The Ongoing Trafficking and Abuse of Third Country Nationals by U.S. Government Contractors. 2012.