External Resources



Catholic Relief Services. Exploring Isolated Cases of Modern Slavery: Farmworker Protections and Labor Conditions in Brazil’s Coffee Sector. 2016.  


Humanity United. Free and Fair Labor in Palm Oil Production: Principles and Implementation Guidance. 2015.


International Labour Organization. Migrant Workers in Commercial Agriculture. 2016.


On the Move Partnership. Who, How and How Much? Recruitment of Guatemalan Migrant Workers to Quebec. 2017.


Verité. Immigrant Workers in U.S. Agriculture: The Role of Labor Brokers in Vulnerability to Forced Labor. 2010.


Verité. Labor Rights Risks in the Guatemalan Sugar Sector. 2017.





Human Rights Watch. Guidelines for a Better Construction Industry in the GCC: Code of Conduct for Construction Companies. 2015.


International Labour Organization. Brick by Brick: Unveiling the full picture of South Asia’s brick kiln industry and building the blocks for change. 2017.


International Trade Union Confederation. Hidden Faces of the Gulf Miracle. 2011.


Manufacturing, Electronics and Electrical:


Verité. Forced Labor in the Production of Electronics Goods in Malaysia. 2014.



Manufacturing, Textile and Apparel:


Asia Foundation. Forced Labor and Child Trafficking in India’s Garment Sector. 2017. 


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Business Conduct: Responsible Supply Chains in the Garment and Footwear Sector. 2017.


Human Rights Watch. "Paying for a Bus Ticket and Expecting to Fly: How Apparel Brand Purchasing Practices Drive Labor Abuses." 2019.



Extractives, Mining, and Metal:


Verité. The Nexus of Illegal Gold Mining and Human Trafficking in Global Supply Chains. 2016.



Fishing and Aquaculture:


Environmental Justice Foundation. Sold to the Sea: Human Trafficking in Thailand’s Fishing Industry. 2013.


Fishwise. Social Responsibility in the Global Seafood Industry. 2018.


Greenpeace. Turn The Tide: Human Rights Abuses and Illegal Fishing in Thailand’s Overseas Fishing Industry. 2016.


Humanity United. Assessing Government and Business Responses to the Thai Seafood Crisis. 2016.


International Labour Organization. Fishers First; Good Practices to End Labour Exploitation at Sea. 2016.


International Labor Rights Forum. Taking Stock: Labor Exploitation, Illegal Fishing and Brand Responsibility in The Seafood Industry. 2018.


Business and Human Rights Resource Centre. Out of Sight: Modern Slavery in Pacific Supply Chains of Canned Tuna. A Survey & Analysis of Company Action. June 2019. 




International Labour Organization. International Year of Forests 2011: What about the labour aspects of forestry? 2011.


Oxfam. Pathways to Deforestation-Free Food: Developing supply chains free of deforestation and exploitation in the food and beverage sector. 2017. 





Australian Nursing & Midwifery Federation. Do No Harm? Procurement of Medical Goods by Australian Companies and Government: Exploitation in Medical Goods Supply Chains. 2017.


International Labour Organization. Improving employment and working conditions in health services. 2017. 





International Labour Organization. Migrant workers in the international hotel industry. 2012.





Human Rights Watch. Abuse of Tanzanian Domestic Workers in Oman and United Arab Emirates. 2017. 



Transportation and Warehousing:


International Labor Rights Forum. Modern-Day Servitude in U.S. Port Trucking: A Call to Retail Brands. 2018.



Global Supply Chains, Recruitment, Trafficking:


Amnesty Nepal. The Debt Trap: How business and government undermine Nepali migrants’ efforts to escape poverty. 2017.


Christina Stringer. Worker Exploitation in New Zealand: A Troubling Landscape. The Human Trafficking Research Coalition. 2016.


Institute for Human Rights and Business. Fees and IDs: Tackling Recruitment fees and confiscation of workers’ passports. 2013.


Institute for Human Rights and Business. Corporate Liability for Forced Labour and Human Trafficking. October 2016. 


International Labour Organization. Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage. 2017.


Lisa Rende Taylor and Elena Shih. Worker feedback technologies and combatting modern slavery in global supply chains: examining the effectiveness of remediation-oriented and due-diligence-oriented technologies in identifying and addressing forced labour and human trafficking. Journal of the British Academy. 2019.


Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). Ezeilo, Joy Ngozi. Human Trafficking & Global Supply Chains: A Background Paper Prepared for the expert meeting convened by the UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons. 2012.


Polaris Project. Labor Trafficking in the U.S.: A Closer Look at Temporary Work Visas.


The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. Connecting human trafficking and conflict. 2017.


Verité. Corruption & Labor Trafficking in Global Supply Chains. 2013.


Yale Law School International Human Rights Clinic, ACLU. Victims of Complacency: The Ongoing Trafficking and Abuse of Third Country Nationals by U.S. Government Contractors. 2012.